Characteristics of the substance Testosterone


Male sex hormone, androgen. It is synthesized by the Leydig cells of the testes in men, as well as in small quantities by the ovaries in women and the adrenal cortex in both men and women.

In medical practice, it is used in the form of testosterone itself and its esters - propionate, undecanoate, cypionate and enanthate.

The main endogenous androgen responsible for the growth and development of the male genital organs and the maintenance of secondary sexual characteristics. Testosterone price.These effects include the growth and maturation of the prostate, seminal vesicles, penis, and scrotum; development of a masculine pattern of hair distribution, such as on the face, pubis, chest, and armpits; enlargement of the larynx, thickening of the vocal cords and changes in body musculature and fat distribution.

Androgens also cause retention of nitrogen, sodium, potassium and phosphorus and a decrease in urinary calcium excretion. Androgens increase protein anabolism and decrease protein catabolism. Nitrogen balance is only improved with adequate intake of calories and protein.

In many tissues, testosterone activity depends on the reduction to dihydrotestosterone, which binds to receptor proteins in the cytosol. The steroid-receptor complex is transported to the nucleus, where it initiates transcriptional events and cellular changes associated with the action of androgens.

Androgens are responsible for the growth spurt during adolescence and for the eventual cessation of linear growth caused by fusion of the epiphyseal growth centers. In children, exogenous androgens accelerate the linear growth rate but can disproportionately accelerate bone maturation. Long-term use can lead to the fusion of the epiphyseal growth centers and the termination of the growth process. Androgens stimulate red blood cell production by increasing the production of erythropoietic stimulation factor.

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